Development and Irrigation of the Virgin Lands in Karshi Steppe
«Feasibility Report (FR) on pumping irrigation with waters of Amudarya River of the area of Kashkadarya River lower reach» was developed by the institute in 1960. It was recommended by the FR to construct Karshi Main Canal (KMC) from Kizilayak section of Amudarya River, with allocation into its commanded area 200 thous.ha of lower lands at the first stage and about 300 thous. ha at the second one.
Thereafter there were developed technical project on main canals and irrigation of 200 thous. ha of the first stage, and after that – second stage of the project for area of 164 thous. ha at upper zone of Karshi Steppe. Water delivering to the massifs of irrigation was provided by Karshi Main Canal with overregulation of supplied water at Talimarjon water reservoir.
KMC was designed for supply with irrigation water of 364 thous.ha of upper zone of Karshi Steppe. Water lifting to the irrigation area is performed to the height up to 132,2 m by system of pumping stations, total capacity of the PS is 450 thous. kW.
The canal is divided into two parts – head reach (pumping canal) and working reach (gravity canal). Talimarjon off-channel-location storage reservoir of 1,5 bln m3 capacity is situated between the reaches. It accumulates water lifted by the head reach of the canal during autumn – winter season, feeds the working reach of the canal in the period of vegetative irrigations and it allows to accumulate water evenly during all year long and distribute it for irrigation in accordance with water supply schedule. Working reach of KMC was designed for 360 m3/sec capacity required for irrigation of all its commanded area at first and second stage of Karshi Steppe reclamation area of 364 thous. ha. Irrigation canals system in Karshi Steppe was designed in such a way to have routes of supply ditches in the direction of maximal slope of surface. As a rule, the supply ditches were designed as reinforced canalettes. Where surface slope were more than 0,003 then asbestos-cement pipes of diameter up to 500 mm were used. On-farm irrigation network in all was designed for the first and second stages of Karshi Steppe reclamation with total length of 11 445 km (or it is 31,2 r.m. per ha). There were designed 827,3 km of main and inter-farm collectors to discharge drainage water. Specific value of closed horizontal drainage average length is 50-60 r.m. per ha. There were designed 85 agricultural enterprises, including 71 cotton ones at total area of 347,2 thous.ha (214,5 thous.ha of which provided for cotton sowing) in the zones of first and second stages of Karshi Steppe irrigation and reclamation.
Complex Irrigation and Reclamation of Virgin Lands in Djizak Steppe
The designed net irrigated area was defined as 183,6 thous. ha with land use coefficient 0,8-0,9, including 178,3 thous. ha lands for agricultural use. 26 agricultural enterprises were provided by the complex project with farms structure and planning close to the design indicators for the new zone of Golodnaya Steppe.
Irrigation network was designed as concrete lined canals, reinforced concrete canalettes and closed pipelines. Total length of pipelines – 2 950,7 km, canalettes – 973,01 km and canals with concrete lining – 254,78 km. At the area of 155 thousand hectares followings were provided: lands leveling with total volume of it 130 mln. m3, horizontal closed drainage at the area of 96,2 thous. ha, vertical drainage at the area of 56,4 thous. ha. Construction of 482,8 km of farm collectors were provided by the project for catchment and diversion of drainage waters.
The total amount of works provided by the project was characterized by following figures: main channels – 362 km, pump stations – 4 units, length of irrigation network – 3 651 km, total volume of lands leveling – 130 mln. m3, total length of horizontal drainage and collector network – 5 780 km, 357 vertical drainage wells, motorways – 1 047 km, main water conduits – 156 km, industrial buildings – 3 700 thous. m2, apartment houses – 750 thous. m2, cultural and community constructions – 974 thous. m2.
Complex Irrigation and Reclamation of Virgin lands in Golodnaya Steppe
The area of Golodnaya Steppe was 205 thous. ha by year of 1956. On August 6, 1956 Council of Ministers of the USSR approved a resolution on development of reclamation works at area of 300 thous. ha at virgin zone of Golodnaya Steppe. «Sredazgiprovodkhlopok» institute was approved as General Designer for this unique project. Development of 49 sizable agricultural enterprises including 43 ones of cotton specialization were provided by integrated projects for irrigation and land-reclamation of new zone of Golodnaya Steppe. Total lengths of designed inter-farm and on-farm irrigation networks were: With concrete lining – 800,8 km; Pipelines – 1 136 km.